Women, Peace, and Security
At the peace table
- From 1990-2000, 11 percent of peace agreements (17 out of 664) included at least one reference to women. Out of the 504 agreements signed since the adoption of resolution 1325, only 138 (27 percent) included references to women.
- In 2015, 7 out of 10 peace agreements signed included gender-specific provisions.
- Between 1992 and 2011, four percent of signatories to peace agreements and less than 10 percent of negotiators at peace tables were women.
- When women are included in peace processes there is a 20 percent increase in the probability of an agreement lasting at least 2 years and a 35 percent increase in the probability of an agreement lasting at least 15 years.
- In peace processes between 1992 and 2011 women made up only:
- 2 percent of Chief Mediators
- 4 percent of Witnesses and Signatories
- 9 percent of Negotiators
- In the recent Colombian peace negotiations, however, women participated as gender advisors and experts, negotiators, and in delegations of women affected by conflict, making up one-third of peace table participants and over 60 percent of victims and experts. Negotiators from both sides met with delegations of women affected by conflict. The Colombia process had a gender subcommittee—the first of its kind—and the final agreement has a gender chapter, also the first of its kind, and gender is mainstreamed across all areas of the agreement.
- In conflict-affected countries, women’s share of seats in parliament is four percentage points below the global average of 22.7 percent, and women occupy only 14.8 percent of ministerial positions.
- By 2016, in conflict and post-conflict countries with legislated electoral quotas, women make up 22 percent of parliamentarians. However, in conflict and post-conflict countries without legislated electoral quotas, women make up only 11.2 percent of parliamentarians.
- The percentage of UN field missions headed by women has fluctuated between 15 and 25 percent since 2011.
- In the summer of 2014, six women ambassadors served on the UN Security Council, putting women’s representation at an unprecedented 40 percent.
- Only 13 percent of stories in the news media on peace- and security-related themes included women as the subject, and women were central to the story in only six percent of the cases. Only four percent of the stories portrayed women as leaders in conflict and post-conflict countries, and only two percent highlighted gender equality issues.
Health, Education, and Livelihood
- Approximately half of the children of primary school age who are not in school live in conflict-affected areas. Girls, whose adjusted net enrolment rate in primary education is only 77.5 percent in conflict and post-conflict countries, are particularly affected.
- In conflict and post-conflict countries, maternal mortality is on average 2.5 times higher. More than half of the world’s maternal deaths occur in conflict-affected and fragile states, with the 10 worst-performing countries on maternal mortality all either conflict or post-conflict countries.
- Only 11.1 percent of landholders in conflict and post-conflict countries are women, compared to 19 percent globally.
- Between 9.5 percent and 13 percent of global military spending could eliminate extreme poverty and hunger by 2030, if funds were channeled to improve agriculture and rural infrastructure in poor communities.
Justice and Security
- Women are 3 percent of UN military peacekeepers.
- According to data collected between 2006 and 2010, female voters are four times as likely as men to be targeted for intimidation in elections in fragile and transitional states.
- Twenty-seven countries have legal provisions that prevent mothers from conferring their nationality to children on an equal basis as fathers, which can lead to children being stateless.
- Forty percent of convictions of individuals at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia include sexual violence charges.
- Reports from the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the extent of conflict-related sexual violence range from 18 percent to 40 percent among women and girls and between four and 24 percent among men and boys.
- One in four households of all Syrian refugee families in Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, and Jordan are headed by women. IN Mali, more than 50 percent of displaced families are headed by women.
- Before the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the average age for marriage for a girl was between 20 and 25 years. In the refugee camps during and after the genocide, the average age for marriage was 15 years.
- Data from 40 countries shows a positive correlation between the proportion of female police and reporting rates of sexual assault.
Peacebuilding and Recovery
- In 2015 alone, the world spent the estimated US $34 billion on UN peacekeeping and humanitarian aid for victims of conflict and refugees.
- In the same year, experts also estimate that the total global cost of violence and conflict around the world was the US $13.6 trillion. This is a cost of more than US $1,800 per person on the planet.
- In the context of early recovery programmes, only 22 percent of funds from cash contributions were directly disbursed to women in 2013.
- In 2015, women received 46 percent of UNDP benefits from temporary employment activities from disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, which constitutes an 8 percent increase from 2014.
- Only one percent of bilateral official development assistance for security system management reform targeted gender equality as a principal objective in 2014 and only 26 percent targeted it as a significant objective.
- In 2014, less than one percent of aid to fragile states and economies targeted gender equality significantly. Only two percent of aid to fragile states and economies in 2012 and 2013 targeted gender equality as a principal objective, and only USD 130 million out of almost USD 32 billion of total aid went to women’s equality organizations and institutions.